Q&As on COVID-19 vaccination
Q1.What type of vaccine is used in Dongguan?
The vaccines are inactivated COVID-19 vaccines made in China, which prevent the novel coronavirus from infecting and reproducing and at the same time cause an immune response within the body. Inactivated vaccines adopt the traditional vaccine production method, which is mature and reliable. Compared with other vaccines, inactivated vaccines enjoy multiple advantages: mature R&D platforms, reliable production technology, controllable quality and standards, rapid development rate, ease for production at scale, and have internationally recognized evaluation criteria of safety and efficacy.
Currently, other COVID-19 vaccines adopting different research and development technologies are successively coming into the market, and authorities will make due adjustments promptly. The assessment of a vaccine requires consideration of its safety, validity, accessibility and affordability.
Q2. How many doses of the COVID-19 vaccine are needed?
The vaccine currently used in Dongguan is an inactivated one against COVID-19, and the current, complete immunization program is two doses, within an interval of three to eight weeks. The vaccination procedures and methods of different vaccine products are different. For details, please refer to the instructions of vaccine products. Arbitrary adjustment of immunization program may affect safety, immune response effect and durability.
Q3. If I miss the second dose, what should I do?
For those who have not completed 2 or 3 doses of COVID-19 vaccination under the recommended schedule, it is recommended to do so as soon as possible. The immunization program does not need to be restarted; just complete the corresponding doses.
Q4. In what kind of situation people should not take the vaccine?
(1) Those who are allergic to the active ingredients of the vaccine, any inactive ingredients, substances used in the production process;
(2) Those who suffer acute diseases;
(3) Those who are at the acute stage of chronic disease;
(4) Those who are having a fever;
(5) Pregnant women.
Q5. Are people with chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood sugar, and chronic gastritis eligible for vaccination?
People whose health conditions are stable and the chronic diseases are under control may get the vaccine, but its best to consult your doctor.
Q6. Are the vaccines safe and effective?
The inactivated vaccine against COVID-19 developed by Beijing Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd., Sinovac Biotech Ltd., and Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd. was granted conditional authorization on December 30, 2020, February 5, 2021, and February 25, 2021, respectively. CanSino Biologics Inc.'s recombinant COVID-19 vaccine (a type 5 adenovirus vector vaccine) was approved for market access conditionally on February 25, 2021. The safety and effectiveness of the above vaccines have been verified following all procedures and requirements.
Q7. What care should the recipients take before and after the inoculation?
During the vaccination, the recipients should pay attention to and cooperate with the following matters:
Before vaccination, the recipients should fully understand relevant information about the COVID-19 disease, vaccine, and inoculation process in advance.
When going to get the vaccination, the recipients need to bring relevant documents as required (such as an ID card) and pay attention to self-protection. Please cooperate with the on-site vaccination staff in information inquiry, and inform the doctor of your health conditions and medicine allergy.
After vaccination, the recipients are required to stay 30 minutes for observation. Please keep the injection area covered, clean and avoid scratching the injection site. Should any adverse reactions suspected to be caused by the vaccine occur, the recipients must report to the vaccination institution and seek timely medical treatment if necessary. And the recipients should stay away from the known and other common allergens within one week after vaccination and try not to drink alcohol or eat spicy food and seafood. It is recommended to have a light diet, drink more water, and take a good rest.
Q8. What are the possible adverse reactions to COVID-19 vaccines?
According to previous clinical trials and the reported information in actual use, common adverse reactions from vaccination are similar to that of other vaccines that are widely used, which mainly include redness, swelling, induration, and pain at the injection site, as well as fever, fatigue, nausea, headache, and muscle aches.
Q9. How long does it take to produce antibodies after receiving the vaccination?
According to existing clinical research data, about two weeks after the second dose of vaccine, the vaccinated population can have a better immune effect.
Q10. How long can the COVID-19 vaccine maintain its protective effect?
The COVID-19 vaccine is newly developed and requires endless monitoring and related research after the inoculation of vaccines at scale to cumulate more scientific evidence and evaluate vaccines' protection persistence; however, the antibodies are not considered the only protective norm. Currently, the validity of the COVID -19 vaccine based on monitoring on antibodies level exceeds six months, and immune persistence is being continuously observed.
Q11. Are the current vaccines effective against new virus variants or mutant strains from other countries?
Minor mutation of the virus has no negative impact on vaccines' antigenicity, particularly in the inactivated whole-virus vaccines. According to the latest global variants monitoring updates, there is no evidence to suggest that the COVID-19 vaccine fails in resistance to the mutation of the virus. However, many organizations such as WHO, research institutions across countries and vaccine production enterprises keep close eyes on the latest situations over the mutation of novel coronavirus and also proceed with related researches which are aimed to provide warning information and scientific evidence for the development and application of vaccines in the future.
Q12. Will the vaccination cause a positive nucleic acid test?
No, it won’t. The vaccines used in Dongguan are inactivated vaccines, which is a "killed" pathogenic microorganism that has lost its infectivity and replication ability, so it will not be tested positive after receiving vaccines.
Q13. Do I still have to take the nucleic acid test after getting vaccinated? Can my vaccine-taking certificate substitute for a nucleic acid test report?
Vaccine taking can reduce infection risks, but no vaccine is 100% effective. When necessary, you should still take the nucleic acid tests as required.
Q14. Do people need to check whether or not it develops antibodies? And how to check? If negative, do they need another vaccination?
The specific antibodies in the human body are generally formed through natural infection or vaccination. At the moment, it is not completely clear what level of antibody will work. Except for the confirmed COVID-19 cases or asymptomatic patients, anyone who is eligible for the vaccine can get the vaccines. There is no need to carry out antibody testing before and after vaccination.
Q15. After getting the COVID-19 vaccination, what should I do if a serum antibody test is positive during the entry-exit inspection?
If the subject received the COVID-19 vaccine two weeks ago, it might cause antibodies to be positive for IgG and IgM. Suppose the result of the serum antibody test is positive, and the results of other tests such as the COVID-19 nucleic acid test are negative. In that case, you can show the COVID-19 vaccination certificate to authorities for further diagnosis.
Q16. Can individuals take COVID-19 vaccines to workmates abroad for inoculation?
There is a stringent approval procedure in entry and exit management on COVID-19 vaccines, forbidding individuals from taking COVID-19 vaccines out of the country privately; otherwise, they possibly break domestic and foreign legislation.
Q17. Will people not get infected with the COVID-19 virus after getting the COVID-19 vaccine?
The Phase III clinical trials of the COVID-19 vaccine in many countries have verified the vaccine's effectiveness. However, it should be noted that, so far, no vaccine can reach 100% protective effect. A small number of people may not develop protection after vaccination or still suffer from the disease, which is related to the vaccine's characteristics and the recipient's physique.
Q18. Why may people get a cold or fever after being vaccinated?
This may be a coincidental event, which refers to that the recipient is in the incubation period or prodromal period of a specific disease at the time of vaccination. The condition occurs coincidentally after vaccination. The coincidental event is not caused by the inherent nature of the vaccine, which means the coupled disease is not causally related to the vaccine itself.
Q19. Why do I feel dizziness, chest tightness, and shortness of breath after vaccination?
This may be a psychogenic reaction. It refers to the reaction that occurs due to the recipient's psychological factors after vaccination, mainly caused by psychological pressure and anxiety during vaccination, which has no organic damage and has nothing to do with the vaccine. Some are "needle-sick" symptoms, and some are "hysteria" symptoms. Group psychogenic reactions can occur during group vaccination activities.
Q20.Do I have any vaccine-related certificate after being inoculated?
Bilingual inoculation receipt will be offered after completing two doses of vaccine, and citizens can search his or her own inoculation record through the "YueMiao” APP.
Q21. Can I receive two doses of COVID-19 vaccines produced by different vaccine enterprises?
It is suggested that recipients receive two doses of COVID-19 vaccines produced by the same vaccine enterprise unless it is in vaccine shortage. However, under such circumstances, the same variety of vaccines can mutually substitute despite being produced by different production enterprises.
Q22. How does the COVID-19 vaccine work in the human body?
After being vaccinated, the human body will produce protective antibodies. Some will also make the body produce cellular immunity and form a corresponding immune memory. Thus the individual is immune to diseases. Once the coronavirus invades the body, the antibodies produced by the vaccine and the cytokines released by cellular immunity can recognize, neutralize or kill the virus, and immune memory also quickly mobilizes the immune system to defend, preventing the virus from continuing to multiply in the body, and finally prevent disease.
Q23. Do people who have been infected with COVID-19 need to get the vaccine?
For those who had COVID-19 infection or asymptomatic infection, it is not recommended to receive the vaccine at the moment. For the others, anyone who is eligible for the vaccination can be vaccinated.
Q24.Whether people are required to inoculate the COVID-19 vaccine every year like a flu vaccine or not?
No related official source has been released yet. Whether people are required to inoculate the COVID-19 vaccine every year as flu vaccine or not depends on the researches on the impact on COVID-19 vaccine inoculation against virus mutants and vaccine protection persistence, etc.
Q25. Do I need to inoculate the COVID-19 vaccine again if I have already been vaccinated?
Booster injection is included in the overall design of the clinical course, while the Phase III clinical trial will be conducted overseas in the future to determine whether or not booster injection is necessary.
Q26. Are people with chronic diseases such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and chronic gastritis eligible for vaccination?
People whose health conditions, such as the indexes of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid, are stable and chronic diseases are under control with medication are not cautioned against getting vaccinated, and vaccination is recommended for them. Otherwise, people whose health conditions are unstable and who are in the acute stage of the diseases should delay the vaccination.
Q27. Are people with allergic constitutions or ongoing allergic skin diseases (e.g. urticaria) eligible for vaccination?
People who have showed serious allergic symptoms such as acute allergy, angioneurotic edema and expiratory dyspnea to vaccines in the past, and people who are at acute exacerbation of allergic diseases are not advised to take the vaccine.
Q28. Can people who recently received HPV vaccine, rabies vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccinetake the COVID-19 vaccine?
It is suggested to separate the inoculation of the COVID-19 vaccines and other vaccinations due to lack of relevant research.
Those who have been inoculated with other vaccines should delay the inoculation of COVID-19 vaccines for at least 14 days to minimize unexpected interactions, and for close observation of post-vaccination reactions.
Rabies vaccines are prior to COVID-19 vaccines for people who are exposed to rabies.
Q29. Can lactating or pregnant women get COVID-19 vaccines?
Although there is no clinical data showing COVID-19 vaccines have impact on infants of breastfeeding mothers, based on the knowledge of the vaccine’s safety, it is recommended that lactating women at high risk of infection to COVID-19 (such as medical staff) get vaccinated. Considering the importance of breastfeeding to the nutrition and health of infants and children, and with reference to international practices, breastfeeding women are advised to continue breastfeeding after inoculation.
Q30. What should I do if I find out that I am pregnant after vaccination? If pregnancy is found after vaccination, no particular medical practices (e.g. termination of pregnancy) are recommended. Timely follow-ups and regular checkups during pregnancy are advised.
Q31. Can people take the vaccines to their overseas colleagues?
There are strict procedures for exit and entry of COVID-19 vaccines. Individuals are not allowed to take the vaccine overseas personally. It is illegal.
Q32. Should I pay for the COVID-19 vaccination for studying and working abroad on private purposes?
For those who work or study abroad for private purposes, the city will provide them with free COVID-19 vaccination services according to the principle of voluntary participation, giving informed consent and assuming personal responsibility for risk.
Q33. How do people aged 18 to 59 get vaccinated?
At present, people aged 18-59 should actively cooperate with the registration work of the neighborhood (village) committees, and go to the designated sites for free COVID-19 vaccinations according to the notifications and arrangements of local committees.
Q34. What is the plan for vaccination of seniors?
The nationwide vaccination plan will eventually be expanded to cover both seniors aged over 60 and those with chronic diseases after trials and the evaluation of mass inoculation.
Source : Office of Leading Group for Vaccination Work of COVID-19 in Dongguan City